Jezgrovit prikaz zapažanja provedenih na juričici u prirodi, kao osnova za shvaćanje ove izuzetne ptice, možete pronaći na sljedećem linku:
Mužjaci juričice - uzgajivač D. Skejić
Četiri mlade juričice s majkom na kraju - uzgajivač D. Skejić
Par juričica (ženka se hrani lisnim ušima, a mužjak je čuva) - uzgajivač V. Antičević, Dubrovnik
Par starih juričica u volijeri (ženka u pozadini), X. 2013. - uzgajivač D. Skejić
Stari mužjak juričice na kraju uzgojne sezone, VI. 2014. - uzgajivač D. Skejić
Četiri mlade juričice (mužjak i 3 ženke, s lijeva na desno), VI. 2014. - uzgajivač D. Skejić
Razumijevanje prirodnog ponašanja juričice je ključ uspjeha u uzgoju, pogledajte par zanimljivih slika i video zapisa:
Prezentacija o ocjenjivanju juričice održana na seminaru ZOSH-a na Ugljanu 2009. godine:
Gospar Leo Ceraj-Cerić je, po meni, trenutno najveći hrvatski uzgajivač zelendura, odnosno verduna kako ih u Dubrovniku zovu. Kad ovdje koristim termin 'uzgajivač' mislim u punom smislu te riječi, jer je Leo u proteklih par godina napravio veliki korak u selektivnom uzgoju zelendura. Iako je u Europi, a naročito u UK, selekcijski uzgoj zelendura već 'stara' stvar (UK - 40-tak godina), kad se priča o selektivnom uzgoju ptica Faune Europe u RH moram nažalost utvrditi da smo još u povojima i stvari se u velikom postotku svode na 'uspješno' razmnožavanje.
Gospar Leo Ceraj-Cerić ispred svojih voljera
Koliko Leovo matično jato napreduje očito je iz godine u godinu, a kako se Leo sada u potpunosti predao ovoj vrsti za očekivati je da će u dogledno vrijeme formirati jedno jako kvalitetno jato. Ove, 2011. godine uzgojio je oko 25 mladih zelendura, a još tri para su bila u uzgoju kada sam ga posjetio u prvoj polovici kolovoza. Na naredne dvije slike možete vidjeti mlade ptice u dvije mutacije koje selekcionira. Kao i sve ptice i zelenduri formiraju oblik nakon mitarenja, a Leo ih još malo udeblja da dobiju na masi prije izložbe. To je jednostavno i specifično kod zelendura nužan korak u pripremi za izložbu.
Mladi mužjak ahatnog zelendura prije mitarenja
Mlada ženka smeđeg zelendura prije mitarenja
Ovdje navodim standard za klasične zelendure, a neke stavke (poput oblika) se mogu uvažiti i za mutacije. Oblik zelendura je po meni presudan za selekciju i svi koji imaju dodir s ovom vrstom, uzgajaju ili je pak samo ocijenjuju, moraju konstantno imati u glavi da zelendur mora biti robusna ptica bez obzira na podvrstu (mislim na oblik, a ne na veličinu). Vitke ptice koje oblikom vuču na češljugara bi iz uzgoja trebalo izbacivati, a na izložbama prilikom ocijenivanja oštro sankcionirati.
CARDUELIS CHLORIS - standard COM
Imajući ovaj standard na umu Leo radi na selekciji matičnog jata. Već je mlade stavio pojedinačno u boksove da se mitare u miru i ujedno pripremaju za izložbe. Ono što me je očaralo je puna soba verduna, svaki u svojoj krletci, a Leo bi o svakome mogao barem pola sata.
Mitarenje i rana priprema za izložbe
I na kraju kao orijentir za selekciju stavljam tri slike zeledura od mog poznanika Rodericka Abele s Malte koji već godinam drži titulu svijetskog prvaka u ovoj vrsti. Gospodin Abela je napisao nekoliko članaka u Alcedu o uzgoju ptica FE, a njegova linija zeledura potječe iz UK. Ptice sam uživo 'studirao' u Reggio Emili prošle godine i mogu samo reći da se ima čemu težiti.
Mužjak zelendura (sjeverna podvrsta), uzgajivač Roderick Abela, Malta (Alcedo – broj 5, rujan / listopad 2005.)
Vrhunski primjerci zelendura, uzgajivač Roderick Abela, Malta
Krstokljun! Konačno, krstokljun!
Iako je već uzgojen na području RH (veliki uzgajivač (bastader) svjetskog glasa pok. Uroš Pavić, negdje prije četrdesetak godina u Zagrebu i koliko me sjećanje služi, u prilično skromnim uvjetima krajem devedesetih godina prošlog stoljeća u Splitu (imena se ne sjećam, ali bi molio da mi netko javi)) krstokljun je toliko teška vrsta da su ga rijetki uzgajivači uopće pokušavali uzgajati. Ja sam ga prvi put dobio na poklon kao dijete 1990. godine kada je u Dubrovniku bila invazija, pa se još od tada sjećam da se radilo o velikoj mirnoj ptici zakrivljena kljuna, a kod mužjaka i prelijepe crvene boje perja. Proteklih godina ga često viđam po izložbama u Europi, a o njegovoj prekretnici u uzgoju (balansirana prehrana) svjedoče prve zabilježene mutacije i sve veći i veći broj hibrida s ostalim vrstama ptica FE. Međutim, na izložbama u RH nema ni pera - ni glasa krstokljunu. To će se uskoro promijeniti i nadam se već će ove 2012. godine prvi uzgojeni krstokljuni biti prikazani na našim domaćim izložbama. Za to je zaslužan izuzetni zaljubljenik u ptice FE, stažist za suca ptica FE i osvajač mnogobrojnih medalja na izložbama najvećeg ranga u RH, moj prijatelj Ante Domazet iz Sinja. Pročitajte njegovo iskustvo u dobijanju prvih mladih krstokljuna. Ugodno čitanje.
Antine voljere zatrpane snijegom, Sinj, veljača 2012. godine
Krstokljune sam kupio u Italiji po visokoj cijeni, ali se isplatilo. Uzgajivač u kojeg sam ih kupio dao mi je korisne savjete. Osnovna prehrana je BLATTNER ZA ZIMOVKE I KRSTOKLJUNE koji sam morao pojačat sa šarenim suncokretom i konopljom. Krstokljuni konstantno moraju imati mladice različite crnogorice te češere. Ne uzimaju živu hranu osim ličinka OSA ŠIŠKARICA koje su nametnik na hrastu, a nalaze se u hrastovoj šiški.
Uzgojni par krstokljuna
Ptice su krenule u polovici siječnja u manjem kavezu 100x50 cm, ali sam ih prebacio u voljeru da se manje uznemiravaju. Nakon toga, već 6. veljače, ptice su počele pravit gnijezdo te su ga završile za 2 dana. Gnijezdo je dobro i debelo izolirano što je i potvrđeno činjenicom da se jaja nisu pothladila niti na -19 °C koliko je tih dana zabilježeno u Sinju.
Krstokljun na gnijezdu
Ženka se nasadila na drugom jaju, a mužjak je sve obavljao: hranio je i stalno čuvao ženku i gnijezdo. Ženka je snesla 4 plavkasta jaja od kojih su se svi izlegli jedan ptić je bio dosta slabi pa je ženka izbacila, a ostali ptići lijepo napreduju. Nadam se da će tako i ostati...
Tri mlada krstokljuna
Prošlo je pune dvije godine i niz neuspjeha s krstokljunima Antu nije niti malo pokolebalo. Naprotiv, postao je još čvršći u namjeri da ih uzgoji. I evo... konačno je uspio! Mladi su upravo izletjeli iz gnijezda, a dugotrajno promatranje ponašanja ove misteriozne vrste je rezultiralo uspjehom. Bravo Ante!
Tri upravo prstenovana krstokljuna, veljača 2014. godine
Ove, 2014. godine je ženka polovicom prvog mjeseca napravila gnijezdo. Snesla je dva jaja, ali bila su neplodna. Nakon 7 dana ponovo je napravila gnijezdo i snesla 4 jaja. Pokazalo se da su sva četiri bila plodna.
Kad su se izlegli mladi ženka ih nije hranila i uz dugotrajno promatranje satima Ante je shvatio da se boji mužjaka. Kad je odvojio mužjaka sve je krenulo kako treba i ženka je počela hraniti. Kako se jedan ptić izlegao kasnije ostali su ga zgnječili. Zasada preostali ptići lijepo napreduju, a ženka ih uglavnom hrani samo sjemenom i graškom. Za par dana će mladi napustiti gnijezdo, a Ante ima i drugi par koji je upravo položio jaja.
Mladi krstokljuni u gnijezdu, veljača 2014. godine
Početkom ožujka mladi su napustili gnijezdo. Sad ih očekuje još jedan kritični period - osamostaljivanje. No, poznavajući Antu i njegovo dugogodišnje iskustvo vjerujem da ni tu neće biti problema. Držim palčeve da ih vidim ove godine na izložbama!
Mladi krstukljun na kupailištu (nekoliko dana nakon napuštanja gnijezda), ožujak 2014. godine
Ovdje možete pronaći još neke informacije o uzgoju krstokljuna koje je priredio zagrebački uzgajivač I. Žitnik: UZGOJ KRSTOKLJUNA.
Dio mog matičnog jata zimovki, fotografirano u volijeri nakon mitarenja. Nadam se da će uzgoj 2014. biti kvaliteniji!
Dio matičnog jata za 2014. godinu
Mladi mužjak pri kraju mitarenja, uzgoj 2013.
The Hawfinch - by Roderick Abela
Coccothraustes coccothraustes Linnaeus,1758
It was during the 2007 breeding season that I finally managed to fulfill the dream which I have long wished for to become a reality. Many dream about breeding these birds as most consider it as the ultimate bird to breed in the European finch class. Many breeders and bird admirors alike consider it as a very difficult bird to breed and this makes it a more exciting challenge to go for.
Young hawfinches (hen, cock, cock, hen) / Mladi batokljuni nakon napuštanja gnijezda (ženka, mužjak, mužjak, ženka)
My first attempt at breeding these beautiful birds goes back to 2005 when I first acquired a docile hen from a friend of mine. As usual I tried to research as much as possible about these adorable birds but one has to say that not too much information is available on breeding these birds.
Soon after acquiring this hen I bought a nice male from a bird dealer to pair to this newly acquired hen. I read in a book that these birds can be very aggressive to each other if one of the partners goes into breeding condition earlier than the other and this can result in serious fights that can lead to death. Therefore I kept both sexes separate in double breeder cages seperated by dividers until mid-April. Towards the end of April I put them together in a large 5m x 4m x 7m shadowed aviary. However I noted that the male had put on so much weight during the period that he was housed in the cage that he could not fly properly. On the other hand the hen went to nest immediately after a week. You can imagine my excitement when one day during the feeding routine I discovered a nest built in the most exposed nest pan in the aviary. Soon after she started laying until she laid a clutch of 3 eggs.
After 7 days I checked the eggs’ fertility only to discover that these were infertile. This did not come at a surprise though as the male as I said earlier was too heavy to fly properly and was therefore unable to fulfill his paternal duties. After I removed the eggs the hen went to nest another 2 times but all these had the same fate as they were all infertile.
There was nothing to be done at this point. After these 3 nests they went into moult. At least it was a partly positive experience from which I could learn some valuable lessons.
The following year I followed practically the same procedure with the difference that I paid more attention to the weight of the birds. Unfortunately during this year I did not manage to source any insects (except some live mealworms) unlike the previous year and this made a huge impact on the breeding condition of all my birds. Towards mid-April I put the birds again into the aviary together, but this time my desire to breed these birds ended abruptly because the hen went into moult soon after releasing her in the aviary. Maybe the difference in lighting from my birdroom where she was kept with the male seperated with a divider, to the aviary which was chosen to be in a darker place to give them privacy induced this moult. Nevertheless this was the same aviary I used the previous year where she nested 3 times.
Roderick's aviaries - middle one with palm branch used for hawfinches / Roderickove volijere (u srednjoj s palminom granom su bili batokljuni)
Once again there was nothing to do. But as I said before, I regard every failure in life as one step closer to success. In bird breeding this is no exception. I had not discovered how to breed the hawfinch as yet, but had discovered more errors that can prevent success.
With the experience of these 2 years in hand, I was determined to make 2007 a breeding success wth such marvelous birds. In winter I started searching for reliable suppliers of insects from abroad. Such food is indispensable for Hawfiches and Chaffinches. As I did in 2005 I managed to imported a lot of frozen insects from abroad.
Detailed 2007 Breeding method
In February I placed the Hawfinch hen in the aviary that was to house the couple, and the male in a separate aviary. The scope of this was to leave them seperated just the same, while allowing them plenty of space to fly and exercise to keep them fit for the upcoming breeding season.
A characteristic of these birds is that their beaks go darker and darker as they near the breeding season. However my hen every year got a dark beak since January when the male’s beak was much more paler (as shown in the photos). Therefore I made it point to enrich the male’s diet with more protein than the female’s namely by using buffalo worms and pinkies. The plan worked as the male’s beak started turning seriously darker and darker after 3 to 4 weeks.
Adult hen in February with beak already dark / Odrasla ženka u veljači s već tamnim kljunom
Adult cock in February with beak still white and the male with dark beak after 4 weeks / Odrasli mužjak u veljači sa svijetlim kljunom i mužjak s tamnim kljunom nakon 4 tjedna pripreme
As for the birds diet I must say that since 5 years I have converted all my birds on a pellets diet. However I must also state that I use the pellets as their basic diet which is then further enriched with supplemental food during different periods of the year.
During the breeding season I enrich their diet with a much more varied diet. I believe that pellets are much healthier and more balanced than dry seeds. Therefore with my hawfinches it was no exception. During the resting period the hawfinches were on a pellets diet plus some dry seeds from time to time. However as I said I do not believe that the diet that is suffcient and complete for maintaing the birds in good condition will be enough to support the youngters in growing from a tiny chick to a full grown bird (around 15 times its original size) in a such a relatively short time. Therefore while I feed the birds pellets all year round, (maintenance and breeding formula for the respective periods), I supplement it with additional natural foods. In the case of hawfinches, in the lead up period I give additional sprouted seeds with soft food, baked milk and egg omelette, frozen (thawed) peas enriched with vitamin and protein powder supplements and spirulina. On top of these I feed a few buffalo worms and pinkies. In order to stimulate their breeding instinct I like to throw a few live mealworms on the aviary floor for the hawfinches to search amongst the dry grass spread on the aviary floor.
Soaked seed and insects / Mekana hrana obogaćena crvima (buffalo i pinkies)
In the beginning of April I put in the male with the female in the same aviary and observed them closely to make sure there were no fights going on. I also put in several different nest boxes and nest pans in different locations and different heights around the aviary. During this season I used a much smaller aviary than the previous 2 years. Its dimensions are 1m x 2m 2m – the same kind of aviary I use for my other European finches. The only difference is that I covered the aviary front with a piece of dry palm tree branch for extra privacy as can be seen in the photos.
After some weeks the I observed the hen carrying around nest material around in her beak looking for the best place to contruct her nest. Before I knew it the nest was neatly built purely out of coconut fibres. I provided all sorts of nesting material but she always chose only coconut fibre. The first nest consisted of 5 eggs. I always remove the first 3 eggs and replace them with dummy eggs until she lays the fourth egg. This time around the hen did not choose an exposed nest pan like 2 years before. She chose a wire box that ia normally used by Greenfinches, screwed to the top front corner, with a large plastic nest pan fitted inside. The front of the aviary was covered with green netting for privacy.
Hawfinch eggs and comparison of eggs - goldfinch, greenfinch, hawfinch / Jaja od batokljuna i usporedba jaja - češljugar, zelendur, batokljun
Hen in nest / Ženka u gnijezdu
Unfortunately after six days I discovered that all the eggs where infertile. This discovery was a big blow to my moral because I had worked so hard at achieving something this time around. Nevertheless deep down I thought maybe it will only be the first nest that will be infertile. It is not uncommon to have a first round with many clear eggs with other european finches such as Greenfinches and Goldfinches. Infact in the same year I had the first round with all clear eggs except for one nest. But from the second round onwards it was full cluthces for all hens except for a few exceptions.
And that is how it turned out to be with the hawfinches. After I removed the eggs from the first round, I gave her some additional calcium concentrate and electrolytes to prepare her for the 2nd round. After around one week she built a new nest again with 5 eggs. This time all of them turned out to be fertile. You could imagine my feelings when I checked out the eggs and saw that all of them were opaque and not clear as the previous nest.
After 13 days four of them hatched and the next day the 5th one hatched. I started providing lots of pinkies and buffalo worms to the hen in a seperate dish plus the usual mix of sprouted seeds, peas, and egg food in a separate dish. However for almost 2 weeks she only consumed the insects and very little of the rest.
Newly hatched chicks / Upravo izleženi mladi
Hen feeding young and male on top of nest / Ženka hrani mlade i mužjak na vrhu gnijezda
Chicks crying out for food / Mladi vape za hranom
I was afraid that I might disrupt the hen so for the first 5 days I could only wait anxiously hoping for the best and did not interfere in any way. I could see the hen eating the insects but I was not sure what was happening inside the nest. On the 6th day I finally approached the nest to ring the birds. I waited for a moment when the hen was off the nest because she would not leave her nest whenever I tried to remove her to check the eggs. I was delighted to find a full nest of youngsters all growing rapidly and healthy. I ringed 4 of them with K sized rings and their legs were already pretty tight.
The fifth one having hatched one day later was a little bit behind his siblings and therefore I decided to remove him as anyway he was falling back and I was sure that as the others grew bigger he would eventually die. The only nest I had at the time with youngsters his age was a reliable canary hen with 2 canaries chicks. Therefore I put this chick inside its nest and observed that the canary hen was feeding him. I helped her out with hand rearing twice daily and it grew steadily for over 8 days. However in the end when it was about to leave the nest it died suddenly and unexpectedly.
After about eleven days the others that were still under the care of their natural mother left the nest and this was the time when I decided to remove the cock just in case he decided to harm the youngsters. I knew this will reduce the chance of getting a second nest, but I decided to play it safe. After about 3 days I put all the youngsters with their mother in a flight cage with grids where they were in less of a risk from injury during this weaning phase.
Since it was now late in the season and the weather was extremely hot, I decided not to go for another nest. The youngsters turned out to be 2 cocks and 2 hens. They can easily be identified as seen in the photos by the colour on their wings and on their heads. The cocks have dark shiny bluish wings while the hens’ are grey, and the heads of the cocks are much darker brown than the hens’.
Juvenile cock (left) and juvenile hen (right) / Mladi mužjak (lijevo) i mlada ženka (desno)
The youngsters were weaned out in the cage and I left them in there for about a month, after which I put them in an outside aviary for the moult. The birds eventualy moulted out into beautiful subjects. The following season I bred another 11 hawfinch chicks from the 3 hens then in my possession.
Juvenile cock with black wings and brown head (left) and juvenile hen with grey wings and paler head (right) / Mladi mužjak s crnim krilima i smeđom glavom (čijevo) i mlada ženka sa sivim krivima i bljeđom glavom (desno)
The birds where shown in various shows both in Malta and also in foreign european countries and I can say they were highly admired by show visitors each time. Being captive bred subjects they turned out to be very tame and this gave the opportunity for the visitors at the shows to admire a hawfinch literally ‘showing off’ itself its show cage. I competed well with the subjects having won a best in show twice in national shows. However the top award came only recently at the World show 2010 in Portugal when I won a silver medal with a team of 4 hawfinch cocks in a hawfinch/crossbill class and a bronze medal with another cock in the same but singles’ class.
I hope that by giving a detailed account of the expereince I had with these birds in the last seasons explaining both my ups and downs, I will be able to give a bigger insight on breeding this bird – the King of the carduelan species.
I believe we as bird breeders, all long for a new breeding challenge from time to time. I believe that in order to achieve this, we must observe our birds as much as possible, and discover as much as possible through research about the birds we want to breed. This will enable us to make our utmost in providing the right environment and nutrition coupled with a lot of common breeding sense to finally achieve that aim – that of breeding a new bird species we never had before. And all this gives us a great sense of satisfaction.
Roderick Abela is a keen breeder of carduelan finches and their hybrids from the mediterranean island of Malta. Over the years he has had breeding experiences amongst others with Hawfinches, African Chaffinches, Siskins, Greenfinches, Black Hooded Red Siskins, Goldfinches, Grey & Green singers, sparrows and other related species and has contributed his experiences in international aviculture magazines. He also has a passion for exhibiting birds and has enjoyed extensive success in this field both in his home country and abroad having won over 50 international medals including 8 World Show medals in the last 3 editions.